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Ńléí dził bighą́ą́’dóó łid yót’ááh yít’i’.

over.there mountiain 3-over there smoke to.rise.up into-I.

There’s a column of smoke rising into the sky from the mountaintop. (YM 1987:804)

’Aadę́ę́’ hoołtį́į́ł.

there-from 3s-rain.Prog

’Adeesdíilgo dibé sits’ą́ą́’ dah diijéé’.

3-thunder.P-GO sheep 1-away.from start-3-run.Pl.P
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When thunder rumbled the sheep stampeded on me, ran away from me. (YM 1987:18)

’Ashkii chizh dáádílkał yiníkáiyiníłhan.

boy firewood door 3-through-3-3-throw.P
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The boy threw the firewood through the door. (YM 1987:234)

’Ííshją́ díí ’atoo’ béésh bii’ kǫ’í bikáá’ dah séką́.

don’t forget this stew stove 3-top up 1-put.P.OC
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Don’t forget that I put the stew on the stove. (YM 1987:482)

-’oh

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less than, short of, too little

-’ąą

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beyond, on the other side, in addition to

-á

-ba’

-ba-

to the point of exhaustion, used up, completed

-ch’ijí

-ch’į’

-chá- or -chá

-chą́’

-dą́ą́’

past time, also used in conditionals, marking the antecedent

-ee

-góó

to, toward, along, on, with a numeral it indicates a date

-iih

-íniiká

-jí

designates ceremonies, religious and political institutions and lifeways

-k’eh+-jí

in a language e.g. diné k’ehjí ’in Navajo’

-k’í

-ká

-lááh

-tis

-tsąąh

-tł’ááh

-yaa

Aadę́ę́’ hoołtį́į́ł.

there-from 3s-rain.Prog

Adeesdíilgo dibé sits’ą́ą́’ dah diijéé’.

3-thunder.P-GO sheep 1-away-from start-3-run.Pl.P

All of the territories of Britain put together is larger than the United States. (YM 1987:67)

Aná’ázt’i’ ńtłóo’go biniinaa béégashii t’óó yigháńdaakah.

fence 3-loose.P-GO 3-because.of cow just 3-through-3-go.pl.P
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Because the fence is slack (loose), the cows go right through it. (YM 1987:678)

Ashkii yázhí ayóo hwe’ádilááh.

little boy very 3-mischievous.
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The little boy is very mischievous. (YM 1987:18)

Atiin bąąhgóó béésh halne’é tsin bá ’adaaz’á.

road 3-along side telephone pole 3-for 3Pl-stand.upright.SPN

The telephones are upright along the road for the phone line. (YM 1987:12)

Ayóo łį́į́’ shił naalgeed diní, ’ííshją́ą́shį́į́ díí łį́į́chogii bikáá’ dah ńdaah!

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You said you’re good at riding broncos; let’s see you get on this stallion! (YM 1987:482)

Ałk’ésdisí naháłnii’go sitsilí dóó shideezhí ’aheełt’éego bá ’ahá níjaa’.

candy 3-1-buy.CI-GO 1-little.brother and 1-little.sister 3-1 split-GO.I 3-for 3-1 gave.I
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I divided the candy I bought equally between my little brother and sister.

Ałk’idą́ą́’ Diné bikéyah bikáa’gi łį́į́’ bichąą bíighahgo tł’oh deíl’áá ńt’éé’ jiní.

long.ago Navajo.land 3-upon-at horse 3-belly sufficient-GO Pl-3-extend.out.of.sight.SNP hearsay
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They say that long ago the grass in the Navajo country was as high as a horse’s belly. (YM 1987:6)

Béégashii yáázh ła’ shibee’í’diidłííd bik’í niní’ą́.

calf one 1-cattle.brand 3-on 3-1-put.NP
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I put my cattlebrand on a calf.

Béésh ’áłts’ózí bee ’atsidí bee ’aháníłne’.

wire hammer 3-with 3-1-beat.P
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I beat the wire in two with a hammer. (YM 1987:41)

Béésh bii’ kǫ’í ná ch’ídeesh’ááł.

metal 3-in fire 2-for out 3-1-carry.F
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I will carry the stove out for you. (YM 1987:293)

Bich’ijí nishłį́.

3-toward-side 1-be.NI

Bilagáana kin baa naháłnii’go neeznáá nááhaijį’ bik’é na’iishłée dooleełgo bił ’ahadi’nisht’ą́.

whiteman house 3-from 3-1-buy.P-GO ten years-up.to 3-for 1-pay.X fut-GO 3-with sup-1-agree.P
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When I bought a house from a whiteman I entered into a ten-year payment contract with him. (YM 1987:37)

Ch’é’étiingóó naanéhígíí shił bééhózin.

entrance-along 3-play.I-COMP 1-with 3-know.NI
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I know that he is playing by the entrance.

Dibé bighan báátis dah yiishte’.

sheep corral 3-over up 1-climb.P
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I climbed over the sheep corral.

Dibé dził binaashii nanishkaad.

sheep hill 3-across.from 3-1-herd.CI
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I am herding sheep across from the hill.

Díí chizh shá ’ałk’íniishóósh.

this firewood 1-for 3-2-split.I
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Split these pieces of wood for me. (YM 1987:92)

Díí tsin ’ał’oh neel’ą́.

this stick RECIP-less.than 3-reach.NP

These sticks aren’t the same length.

Dził bit’ááhgi bįįh halzheeh.

Mountain 3-close.to-at deer 3-3-hunting.CI
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He’s deer hunting over near the mountain. (YM 1987g:33)

Ha’ąądi dibé bighan.

areal-other.side sheep 3-corral
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The sheep corral is on the other side (of the hill). (YM 1987:145)

Hak’az bik’ee shíchį́į́h doo ’áháłchįįh da.

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My nose is numb with the cold. (YM 1987:42)

Hatáálgóó déyáago shikélchí t’óó tsxį́į́łgo bił ’ada’shéshiizhgo ńdaséłkad.

ceremony-1-go-Fut-GO 1-moccasin merelyhurry.GO 3-with 3-1-pierce-GO 3-1-sew-P
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Since I was going to a ceremony, I hurriedly pierced holes in my moccasins and sewed them. (YM 1987g:10)

K’ad cháshk’eh góyaa tó de ’anool’ąął.

now wash down water up 3-rise.Prog
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The water’s rising now down in the wash. (YM 1987:122)

K’ad niba’ sédáa dooleeł.

now 2-wait 1-sit.SPN future
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I’m waiting for you now.

K’os jóhonaa’eí yich’ą́ą́h ’i’ííjool.

cloud sun 3-protect 3-drift.P
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A cloud moved in front of the sun. (YM 1987:362)

Kintah góyaa yishááł ńt’éé’ béeso ńdiiłtsooz

areal-down 1goProg pastmoney 3-1 pick FFO. p
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I was walking down the street when I found a dollar bill. (YM 1987:496)

Kintah góyaa yishááł ńt’éé’ béeso ńdiiłtsooz.

areal-down 1goProg pastmoney 3-1 pick FFO. p

I was walking down the street when I found a dollar bill. (YM 1987:496)

Mary bimá sání yá ’ata’ halne’.

Mary 3-grandmother 3-for indef-between 3-talk.DI
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Mary is translating for her grandmother.

Mary łį́į́’ bił yá’át’ééh.

Mary horse 3-with 3-good.NI

Mósí yázhí bímá yits’ą́ą́’ yóo’ííyá.

kitten 2-mother 3-from away-3-go.P
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The kitten got lost from its mother.

Naakaii Bito’gi béégashii bee łá’í’ídlínígíí bee ’anishtah.

mexican water-at cow 3-with one-unify.P-COMP 3-with 1-among.NI
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I’m a member of the Mexican Springs Cattle Association. (YM 1987:164)

Ndáa’di shizhé’é diné ła’ yił ’ahi’niighą́ąhgo bita’ niséya.

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When a man started fighting them with my father at the War Dance, I got in between. (YM 1987:59)

Níká ’adeeshwoł biniiyé níyá.

2-for 1-run.F 3-purpose.of 1-came.P
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I came to help you. (YM 1987g:32)

Ńdíshchíí’ yáázh bąąh hasis’na’go shił yaa ’ádzaa.

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The little pinetree bent down with me when I climbed it. (YM 1987:130)

Ólta’di ndeii’néego ’ashkii ła’ kin bizánághahdę́ę́’ shich’į’ ch’élwodgo bił ’ahídégoh.

school-at 1pl-play.I-GO boy some building-3-around-from 1-to out-3-run.P-GO 3-with 3-1-collide.P
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When we were playing at school a boy came running at me around the corner of the building and I collided with him. (YM 1987:57)

Sam ’ádił yálti’.

Sam reflx-with 3-talk.DI
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Sam talks to himself.

Sáanii ’éétsoh bi’oh ’ádaníłtso.

women coat 3-less.than indef-Pl-3.size.N
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The coats are too small for the women.

Sha’ałchíní béeso ’ashladiin baa nínil ńt’éé’ t’ááła’ajį́ ’ałtso yibadooskai.

1-children money 50 3-for 2-put.PlO.P past at-once all 3-3-exhaust.P
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I gave my children fifty dollars and they went through it in a single day.

Shá hooł’aah.

1-for areal-2 move-over.I

Sháahsita’gi yihę́ęsgo tsin-ts’ósí bee yích’id.

1-point.between.shoulder.blades 3-itch.I-GO stick 3-with 3-1-scratch.P
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When I got an itch between my shoulder blades, I scratched it with a stick. (YM 1987:1)

Shidá’í tsékooh góyaa bił ’adáá’áázh.

1-uncle canyon areal-down 3-with 1.go.dual.P
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I went down in the canyon with my uncle. (YM 1987:11)

Shighandóó ndáá’góó ’ada’iisdee’go nihí ’éí t’áá yiike’.

1-home-from war.ceremony-to 3-go.away.P we.du.pl TOP just 1du-remain.behind.P
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When everyone from my home went away to attend the Squaw Dance, we stayed behind. (YM 1987:10)

Shikéédę́ę́’ naa hodoolzhish.

1-behind-from 2-passing become.F
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It will be your turn after me. (YM 1987:461)

Shilééch’ąą’í hats’ąą ńdóosht’į́į́ł laanaa nízin yę́ę bik’íníyá.

1-dog areal-away.from 1-hide.O wishful 3-want past 3-1-find.P
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My dog wanted to hide from me but I found him.

Shilééchąą yázhi shikéé’ yildlosh ńt’éé’ hashtł’ish yiih yildloozh.

1-dog little 1-behind 3-walk.Prog past mud 3-into 3-walk.P
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My puppy went into the mud as he trotted along behind me. (YM 1987:761)

Shilééchąą’í bikéé’ yishááł.

my.dog 3-following 1-go.Prog
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I’m walking along behind (following) my dog. (YM 1987:199)

Shilééchąą yázhi shikéé’ yildlosh ńt’éé’ hashtł’ish yiih yildloozh.

1-dog little 1-behind 3-walk.Prog past mud 3-into 3-walk.P
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My puppy went into the mud as he trotted along behind me. (YM 1987:761)

Shimá sání t’áá shídin ’íiya.

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My grandmother went away without me. (YM 1987:713)

Shimásaní lééchą́ą́’í tsin bee nidiiłhaal.

1-grandma dog stick 3-for 3-1-hit.P
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My grandma hit the dog with a stick.

Shizhé’é bitsą́ądi haashį́į́ yidzaago tł’óó’góó yik’ee naalyiish.

1-father 3-stomach-at something 3-happen.P-GO outside-toward 3-account 2-bend/stoop.CI
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My father is going around outside stooped (and holding his stomach) because something happened to it.

Shí nék’eesinilí shee hólǫ́ǫgo t’éiyá bee ’eesh’į́.

1-me glasses 3-there exist.NI with only 3-with1-see.N(Prpg:??)
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I can only see with my glasses. (YM 1987:367)

Shí t’óó ’ááłk’iis yisháałgo shizhé’é tsékooh gódeg ha’asbą́ą́z.

1 merely SUP alongside 1-go.Prog-GO 1-father canyon areal-up up-3-drive.P
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My father drove (a wagon) up out of the canyon with me walking alongside. (YM 1987:2)

Shį́į́dą́ą́’ na’niiłkaadgo t’áá ’áháníjį’ ’adeeshch’iłgo bik’ee deelyiz.

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Last summer when we were out herding sheep a bolt of lightning struck nearby and gave us a startle. (YM 1987:29)

Shį́į́dą́ą́’ łé’é yázhí shee hazlį́į́’.

summer-past pony 1-with 3-become.P

I got a pony last summer, I acquired a pony last summer. (YM 1987:410)

T’áá ’ałkéé’ ’azee’ííł’íní bił yah ’adahaadzá.

just one-behind-another doctor 3-with 3-in 1Dist-4-go.I
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We went one at a time to see the doctor.

t’ááłáhádi neeznádiin dóó ba’aan táá’

one hundred and 3-beyond three

T’íís Ts’ózídí shicheii bidááh niyá.

Crownpoint.at 1-grandfather 3-meet 1-walk.P
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I met my grandfather at Crownpoint.

Tooh ńlínigíí t’óó bááłk’iis yisháałgo shee ’i’íí’ą́.

river merely 3-alongside 1-walk.Prog 1-with evening time
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I spent the day walking alongside the river. (YM 1987:2)

Tó bee naat’ahí yę́ę bitł’áahdi yiichxii’ lá.

water canteen past 3-bottom-di 3-rust.P DISC
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The water canteen has gotten rusty on the bottom. (YM 1987:251)

Tózis biníká dínísh’į́į́’.

bottle 3-through 1-look.X
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I’m looking through the glass bottle. (YM 1987:234)

Ts’aa’ wolyéhę́ę k’ad t’áá ’íiyisíí bídin hóyéé’.

basket 3-call.NI-past now really 3-without HO-lack.NI
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There’s a real scarcity of traditional baskets now. (YM 1987:458)

Tsinaabąąs bikáádę́ę́’ ’adaashááh nt’éé shitł’aakał ’íízǫ́ǫ́z.

wagon 3-from downward-1-go.I past 1-skirt 3o-1-tear.P
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I ripped my skirt as I was getting down from the wagon. (YM 1987:11)

Tsinaabąąs bikáá’d’ t’áá ’ałkéé’ ’adahaago’ ndeii’néego.

wagon 3-top-from just one-after-another down-1Pl-fall.P 3Pl-play.CI-GO.CI
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Playing, we fell one after another off the wagon. (YM 1987:9)

Tł’ée’go shibee ni’dildlaadí bíhosésa’go ch’ééh ’ádináhweessił.

night-GO 1-flashlight 3-1-miss.P-GO in.vain reflex-1-grope.Prog
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When I missed my flashlight at night I groped around myself. (YM 1987:18)

Tł’éédą́á’ dibé ch’íníjéé’ yiists’ą́ą́’ ’áádóó t’óó ńléí tsé deez’áhí bizánághah góne’ ’ahosoolts’ą́ą́’.

last.night sheep out-3-run-Pl.P 3-sound.P and then merely there rock point 3-around areal-in out-are
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Last night the sheep got out of the corral and the sound they made disappeared around the point of the ridge. (YM 1987:73)

Tł’éédą́ą́’ mą’ii léí’ shidááh gónaa ch’élwod.

last-night coyote there 1-before areal-around 3-move-rapidly.P
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Last night a coyote crossed my path. (YM 1987:278)

Tł’éédą́ą́’ mą’ii léí’ shidááh gónaa ch’élwod.

last-night coyote there 1-before areal-around 3-move-rapidly.P
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Last night a coyote crossed my path. (YM 1987:278)

Yadiizíní bitł’ááhdę́ę́’ bigháda’shéshiizh.

can 3-bottom-from 3-through-SUP-1-poke.P
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I poked holes in the bottom of the can. (YM 1987:186)

Łééchąą’í ’ałch’į’ yiil’aad.

dog RECIP-toward 3-1du-sic.P
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We sicced the dogs on each other.

Łį́į́’ áhidiníłnáago sizí.

Refl-3-3-opposite-GO 3-du-stand.SPN
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The horses stand facing in opposite directions. (YM 1987g:29)

Łį́į́’ hooghango nooshkaałgo táá’ shits’ą́ą́ bizánághah góne’ ’ał’haa’éékaí.

horse hogan-GO 3-1-herd-Prog-GO 3-1-away-from around areal-in-3 3-run.P.Pl
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I was chasing the horses home when three of them took off around the bend.

Ńló bik’ee hooghan góne’ yah ’aniidzood.

hail 3-on account of house areal-in 3-in 1Pl-flee.P
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We took refuge from the hail by fleeing into the house.