Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

An example search has returned 50 entries

’Ahbínídą́ą́’ t’áadoo ’ííyą́ą́’góó biniinaa wónáásdóó dichin shi’niiłhį́.

morning-past neg 1-eat.P-GO.NEG 3-because soon hunger 1-3-kill.I

’Ałk’idą́ą́’ Naayéé’ Neizghání ha’a’aahjigo ’atsiniltł’ish bił dah yizdéél jiní.

long.ago Monster Slayer east-to lightning 3-with up 3-move.SFO.P 4-say
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It is said that long ago Monster Slayer was carried away eastward by lightning.

’Ałk’idą́ą́’ shimá b na’nishkaadgo ’aghaa’ yisdizígíí dibé yázhí yichíihgo yizénéíłt’ih.

long ago 1-mother 3-with SUP-1-herd.I-GO wool 3-spin.P-ígíí lamb 3-birth.P-GO 3-neck-around-3-tie.P

’áko ’índa

CONJ

’Áłtsé baa nitsídadiikos ’áko shį́į́ ’índa bik’i nidadii’nił.

first about 3-3.think.F then only 3-3pl.record.I
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Think first about it and only then we’ll record it.

bik’ídadidoohdis

pl-3DO-2dpl-wrap.it.around.it.F

bik’ídideesdis

3DO-1-wrap.it.around.it.F

Bini’ íídeeshtah doodago ’éiyá yóó’ ’adeeshwoł.

let will-1-school or only away 1-off-run.P

Chidí naat’a’íísh hooghan yikáá’góó ch’éta’ ’éí doodago daats’í dził yąąhgóó ch’ét’a’?

airplane-Q house 3-over-along 3-fly.P TOP or perhaps mountain 3-over-along 3-fly.P

Da’ chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodaii’ ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

Q car-Q 3-with 4-exist.NI or 2 maybe car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Damǫ́ǫgo tódilchxoshí yishdlį́į́h.

Sunday-GO soda 3-1-drink.U
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On Sundays I drink soda.

Daniel hahgosh hidilníísh?

Daniel when-Q 3-start.work.I

deididoołhįh

pl-3DO-3dpl-melt.it.F

deiitł’ó

pl-3DO-1dpl-weave.it.I

Díí chizh shá ’ałk’íniishóósh.

this firewood 1-for 3-2-split.I
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Split these pieces of wood for me.

doo deighánígóó

Ha’át’éegoshą’ t’áadoo díníyáa da?

why-Q neg 2-go.sg.P NEG

Ha’át’íísh nizhé’é nayiisnii’?

what-Q 2-father 3-3-buy.P

hadadoołbįįd

pl-3DO-2dpl-fill.something.up.with.it.P

Haidą́ą́’ ’a’áán góne’ naashnish ńt’éé’ --- doo sh yá’át’éeh da.

winter-past mine.shaft 1-work.I past neg 1-with 3-good.N neg

hajiłgéésh

3DO-4-cut.it.out.I

haniilchaad

3DO-1dpl-card.it.(as.in.wool).I

hazhnííłchaad

3DO-4-card.it.(as.in.wool).P

Háadi lá ’ádeiit’į́?

where-at Q pl-3-be

háajį’go

Hái da shą’ tsinaa’eeł ’ájiilaa?

who DA Q boat 3-4-make.P

jidiłhį́į́h

3DO-4-melt.it.I

jidooyį́į́ł

3DO-4-eat.it.F

Kin Łánídiísh ’éí doodago Bee’eldííldahsinildi daats’í naniná?

Flagstaff-at-Q TOP or Albuquerque-at perhaps 2-go.around.CI

Kintahdę́ę́’ łį́į́’ sh nááldlosh.

town-from horse 1-with 3-run.CI

KinŁánídi ’ííníshta’ ńt’éé’ ’áádóó t’áá ’ániidígo ’áadi náánísdzáá ńtéé’ ’ééhosisya’ lá.

Flagstaff-in 1-study.P past and.then just recently there-at 1-return.P past 1-get.hazy.P disc
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I was young I went to school in Flagstaff but I returned there recently to find that I’m so hazy about things that I barely recognize the place.

Mary ha’át’íí nayiisnii’?

Mary what 3-3-buy.P

Naakidi ’oolkiłgo ’áko ’índa ’áajigo dah diiyá.

two.at time-GO after.that. towards.GO start 1.go.I
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After 2 o’clock I started to go that way.

Náshdóítsoh shich’į ńdiilwodgo yíníiłdon ńt’éé’ k’asídą́ą́’ sésiih.

cougar 1-toward 3-run.P-GO 3-1-shoot.P past very.nearly 3-1-miss.P
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As the mountain lion came for me I fired at him and very nearly missed him.

Nibéézh bee hane’ doo ndi naalnish da.

2-cellphone NEG but 3-work.P NEG

nishóóh

3DO-2-brush/comb.it.I

Nisneez sélį́į’go shicheii nahałáhági ’át’éego nahashłáa doo nisin.

1-tall.NI 1-become.P-GO 1-grandfather 3-perform.ceremony.CI-similar.to 1-perform.ceremony.CI future 3-want.NI
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When I get big I want to conduct ceremonies just like my grandfather.

Nił hǫ́zhǫ́ǫ́sh doodaii’ doósh nił hózhǫ́ǫ da?

2-with-happy.NI-Q or neg-Q 2-with happy.NI neg

Nídeezidgo ’índa hoł ní’deeswod.

month-GO only.then 4-with 2-drive.back.F

Ólta’di ndeii’néego ’ashkii ła’ kin bizánághahdę́ę́’ shich’į’ ch’élwodgo b ’ahídégoh.

school-at 1pl-play.I-GO boy some building-3-around-from 1-to out-3-run.P-GO 3-with 3-1-collide.P

Shich’é’é bi’éé’ bá ’áshłéehgo naat’ą́hí hááłgizh.

1-daughter 3-clothes 3-for 3-1-make-I 1-GO fabric I-cut.P
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I cut out fabric for my daughter’s clothes that I made.

Shidibé ’ąą’ dinót’į́į́ł laanaa ch’ééh nisin.

1-sheep expanse 3-increase.O wish in.vain 1-want.CI

Shimá dóó shizhé’é Yootóodi ’ółta’ ńt’éé’.

1-mother and 1-father Santa.Fe-at 3-go.to.school.NI past

T’áá ch’ééh ’ásht’į́įgo bįįh biyaaghah ’eelwod.

just in.vain 1-act.NI-GO deer 3-around.corner 3- run.away.P
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I was still trying (to get a bead) when the deer went around a corner and disappeared.

t’áá gééd

Tsé ’ayóí ’áníłtso léi’ tsékooh góyaa hadah ch’ééłmááz.

rock remarkably large INDEF canyon areal-down areal-edge out-3-1-roll.P
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I rolled a big rock over the edge and into the canyon.

Tł’éédą́ą́’ shį́į́ nida’a’nééhgóó nidadziskai.

last.night perhaps game-to pl-3-3-go.pl.P
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Perhaps they attended the game last night.

woohdlą́ą́’

3DO-2dpl-drink.it.P

Yiską́ągo Na’nízhoozhídi háadish ’adeeshį́į́ł ninízin?

tomorrow Gallup-at where-Q 2-eat.F 2-want.CI

łáháda

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now and then, once in a while, seldom, rarely