Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

An example search has returned 50 entries

’Abe’ yistiní hazhóó’ógo ni’ ninishtłeeh ńt’éé’ nááłhęęsh.

ice.cream carefully stop 3-1-stop.carry.I past 3-fall.P
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I was carefully putting down a scoop of ice cream when it fell.

’Adą́ą́dą́ą́’ shichidí tsé bik’ą́ą́h yíłbą́ą́z.

yesterday 1-car rock 3-against 3-run.P
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I ran my car against a rock yesterday.

’Ashkii chizh dáádílkał yiníkáiyiníłhan.

boy firewood door 3-through-3-3-throw.P
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The boy threw the firewood through the door.

’Ayóigo deesk’aaz --- ’áyąą (’áyaańda) dah dinítsiz.

terribly cold no.wonder up 2-shiver.NI
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It’s terribly cold - - no wonder you’re shivering.

’Ałk’idídą́ą́’ kin ’áshłaa ńt’éé’ ’éí t’ahdii bii’ shighan.

quite.long.ago house 3-1-make.P past it still 3-in 1-home

’Áádę́ę́’ nánísdzáago łį́į́’ bá nida’deeshjoł.

from.there 1-return.P-GO horse 3-for pl-1-set.out.NCM.F

’ániidígo

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recently, not long ago

’Áłchíní hastą́ą́ binááhaidóó deigo hodees’áago t’áá ’ałtso da’ółta’go yá’át’ééh.

children six 3-year.P-from up areal-extend.NP all pl-3-study.NI-GO 3-good.N

-jigo

-kéé’

Chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodago ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

car-Q 3-with 4-exist.N or 2 maybe car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodaii’ ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

car-Q 3-with 4-exist.NI or you perhaps car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Da’ chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodaii’ ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

Q car-Q 3-with 4-exist.NI or 2 maybe car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Da’ Ron yiską́ągo saad neidoołkah?

Q Ron tomorrow word 3-3-investigate.F

Damóo yę́ędą́ą́’ dziłghą́ą́’dę́ę́’ shádí dóó ba’áłchíní bił ’adaashkai.

sunday past.time mountain-top.of-from 1-elder.sister and 3-children 3-with downward-1-go.Pl.P
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Last Sunday I accompanied my older sister and her family down from the mountaintop.

deigo

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up, upward, up in the air

Dibé bighan báátis dah yiishte’.

Sheep corral 3-over up 1-climb.P

Dichin bik’ee doo bííchįįd da.

hunger 3-account neg 3-become.hopeless.P neg
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On account of famine conditions have become hopeless.

Dííshą’ látsíní háádę́ę́’ naa ninídee’?

this-Q bracelet where-from 2-to 3-arrive.PlO.P

Díkwíí shą’ ninááhai?

how.many-Q 2-winter.NI

doo --- le’ ’át’éégóó

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used with the optative mode to produce a meaning roughly equivalent to “proof against”

doo --- ndi

doo chohoo’į́į́góó

Doo deighánígóó łeeyi’ ’azhnígeed.

NEG far ground-inside 3-4-dig.P

Doo t’áá k’ad ’ííłta’ da.

NEG just now 1-go.school.P NEG
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I don’t want to go to school.

Doozhǫǫgo da’ííłta’ígíí t’éiyá yá’át’éehgo naanish bá dahólǫ́.

satisfactory pl-3-study.P-NOM only 3-good.N-GO work 3-for pl-3-exist.NI

Dził bit’ááhgi bįįh halzheeh.

mountain 3-close.to-at deer 3-3-hunting.CI
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He’s deer hunting over near the mountain.

Díidí háísh bichidí?

this who-Q 3-car

Gohwééh ła’ shaa níkaah.

coffee some 1-to 2-give.OC.I

haa nízah

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how far is it, how much time

Haidą́ą́’ shich’ą́ą́h ’ííchííl na’nishkaadgo.

winter-past 1-protect 3-snow.P 3-1-herd.CI-GO

há’at’é-go

Háísh tsinaa’eeł ’áyiilaa?

who-Q boat 3-3-make.P

Háíshą’ tsinaa’eeł ’áyiilaa lá?

who-Q boat 3-3-make.P DISC

Hoozdo hoolyéedi deesdoi sha’shin. ’Áyaańda (’áyąą) diné bi’éétsoh t’áá gééd ndaakai.

Phoenix areal-called-at hot possibly no.wonder person 3-coat without pl-3-go.pl.P
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I guess it’s warm in Phoenix. No wonder people go around without coats.

K’ad cháshk’eh góyaa tó de ’anool’ąął.

now wash down water up 3-rise.Prog
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The water’s rising now down in the wash.

Kwe’éshą’ haa nízah nináhálzhishgo nináháltį́į́h?

here-Q how 3-long.N-up.to time.move.R-GO rain.R
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How often does it rain here?

naa

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across, crosswise on

Náás heesháałgo chidí bine’ ’ííyá.

forward 1-step.Prog-GO car 3-behind 1-go.P
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I stepped up (and got) behind the car.

Nádí daats’í ’éí doodaii’ nideezhí daats’í bááh ’íidoolííł?

older.sister perhaps or younger.sister perhaps bread 3-make.F
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Is your older sister or your younger sister going to make bread? / Maybe your older sister or your younger sister is going to make bread.

Nihimásání ha’át’íí lá yinízin?

1dpl-grandmother what LÁ 3-3-want.NI
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What does our grandmother want?

Shicheii t’áá ’íiyisíí hastihgo biniinaa kónááhoot’éhí doo na’ádódlíi da.

1-grandfather very 3-old.N-GO because next.year NEG 3-expect.live.NP NEG 
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Since my grandfather is very old he doesn’t expect to be alive next year at this time.

Shichidí t’ahdii yá’át’ééh, ’át’ah ’índa ła’ ninááhideeshnih.

1-car still 3-good.N later one again-3-1-buy.F
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My car is stíll good so I won’t buy another one until later.

shíníłbéézh

3DO-2-boil.it.P

Tł’éédą́ą́’ ’iiłhaazh.

night-past 1-sleep.P

yaa

down, downward

yiishjį́į́h

1-become black, get sunburned.U

Ła’ damóo yę́ędą́ą́’ dah ’iyétł’ónée, k’ad ’ałníí’góó ’eeshtł’óół.

one Sunday past up 3-1-set.P-past now middle-toward 1-weave.Prog

Ła’ nídeezid yę́ędą́ą́’ ’áajigo niséyá.

one month past that-way-GO 1.go.P

Łį́į́’ ’áhidinníłnáago sizį́.

horse Recip-3-opposite-GO 3-du-stand.SPN
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The horses stand facing in opposite directions.