Introduction to Navajo Adverbs
This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.
We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.
Ła’ ha’nitáhígíí ’éí biihidzóhí 50 entries
’Adą́ą́dą́ą́’ shá bíighah ’atah ’adishdiłgo ’i’íí’ą́.yesterday 1-for 3-passing down 1-play.stick.dice.RI-GO evening
’Asdzą́ą́ Báhóózhóní yinishyée dooleeł.woman happy 1-called.NI future
’Áádę́ę́’ nánísdzáago łį́į́’ bá ni’deeshjoł.from.there 1-return.p-GO horse 3-for pl-1-feed.F