Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

Ła’ ha’nitáhígíí ’éí biihidzóhí 50 entries

’Awéé’ dah sidá.

baby up 3-sit.SPN

’Azhą́ hasistih ndi ’ayóo ’eesh’į́.

even.though 1-be.old.P even.though very 3-1-see.Prog

’ałdó’

’ániidígo

’Áłah ’aleehgo ch’iyáán ’ádadiilnííł ’áko shį́į́ ’índa diné ndahidookah.

meeting-Comp food 3-1-Pl-make.F CONJ people 3-Pl.will-arrive.F

-doondó’ --- da, doo ndi ---da, doondó’ ndi --- da

-niinaa

Asdzą́ą́ yázhí bichidí doondó’ naalnish da.

woman little 3-car not.even but 3-work.P NEG

Béésh bee hane’é b nááshbał.

phone 3-with 1-whirl.Prog

bik’ídísdis

3DO-1-wrap.it.around.it.I

Ch’ééh jiyáán hastiin baa nahashniihgo ch’ééh ’ííł’įįd ’ahbínídą́ą́’.

watermelon man 3-from 3-1-buy.CI-GO tried in.vain 1-act.P morning-past

Ch’iyáán bá hooghandi béeso bideená naashnish.

food.store-at money 3-in-exchange.for 1-work.CI

Chidí naat’a’íísh hooghankáá’góó ch’ínísaal ’éí doodaii’ dziłghąą’góó daats’í?

airplane house-over-along over-3-fly.P TOP or mountain-attached-along perhaps

dajiłhį́į́h

pl-3DO-4dpl-melt.it.(snow).I

dayiigish

pl-3DO-3dpl-make.one.cut.in.it.I

Deenásts’aa’ sh naaldloosh ńt’éé’ shimá siiłtsą́, yiniinaa násineestsxas.

ram 1-with 3-trot.CI past 1-mother 1-3-see.P 3-because 1-3-whip.P

deiilzhóó’

pl-3DO-1dpl-brush/comb.it.P

deitł’ó

pl-3DO-3dpl-weave.it.I

Dichin nínízin ya’?

hungry 2-want.NI Q

didiiljeeh

3DO-1dpl-start.fire.I

didiiljéé’

3DO-1dpl-start.fire.P

dishhį́į́h

3DO-1-melt.it.I

Díí łééchąą’í dah doosłóós laanaa.

this dog 1-lead.O.ADV-laanaa optative particle for a positive wish, hope or desire.

Doo b bééhózin da ya’?

neg 3-with 3-know.CI neg Q

Doo choshijooł’į́į́’ le’ ’át’éégóó sh hóyéé’.

NEG 3-1-make.use.O proof.against-NEG 1-with lazy.NI

Díí séí dóó tsé yázhí ’ałtahígíí łeezh bikáa’gi naasaas ’áko shį́į́ doo hashtł’ish da doołeeł.

this sand and stone little mixed.together-NOM dirt 3-on-at 3-1-sprinkle.Prog then maybe NEG mud NEG future

hadeizgeed

pl-3DO-3dpl-dig.it.out.P

Haidą́ą́’ ’a’áán góne’ nishishnish ńt’éé’ --- doo sh yá’áhoot’éeh da.

winter-past mine.shaft 1-work.P past neg 1-with 3-good.N neg

hazhdínóołchał

3DO-4-card.it.(as.in.wool).F

hazhniłchaad

3DO-4-card.it.(as.in.wool).I

Hodíina’go bááh dootł’izhí deeshį́į́ł dóó ’ahwéé b ła’ deeshdlį́į́ł.

after.a.while-GO bread blue 3-1-eat.F and coffee 3-with some 3-1-drink.F

Hooghan bikáá’ dah si’áánígíí biyah danii’áago ’ádíílį́į́ł ’áko hooghan doo ałhiinídoołdas da.

hogan 3-on up 3-sit.SPN-ÍGÍÍ 3-under pl-3-extend.NP-GO 3-2-make.F so hogan NEG RECIP-3-collapse.F NEG

jishóóh

3DO-4-brush/comb.it.I

Kin Łánídiísh ’éí doodago Bee’eldííldahsinildi daats’í naniná?

Flagstaff-at-Q TOP or Albuquerque-at perhaps 2-go.around.CI

Na’azhǫǫshgi díkwíí shį́į́ shaa woobįįh?

hoop.and.pole.game-at how.much 1-to pass-win.I

Na’nííshee’ dóó k’ad éí dah ’iishtł’ó.

3-1-warp.P and now TOP up 3-1-tie.DI

Nizhónígo ha’íí’ą́ yę́ędą́ą́’ sxíiłgo da’ségis.

beautiful sunrise past quickly pl-3-1-wash.P

Sha’áłchíní Toohgóó bił ’eesbąs.

1-children Shiprock-to 3-with 1-drive.Prog

Sháahsita’gi yihę́ęsgo tsin-ts’ósí bee yích’id.

1-point.between.shoulder.blades 3-itch.I-GO stick 3-with 3-1-scratch.P

Shicheii t’áá sáhí ’átsą́ą́’ ’ałtso yoolghal --- doochǫǫł ’át’éego ’ajilghał dooleeł!

1-grandpa just himself rib whole 3-chew.P ridiculous 3-be.NI-GO SER-3-ate.DI FUT

Shighandóó ndáá’góó ’ada’iisdee’go nihí ’éí t’áá yiike’.

1-home-from war.ceremony-to 3-go.away.P we.du.pl TOP just 1du-remain.behind.P

Shinék’eesinilí shee hólǫ́ǫgo t’éiyá bee ’eesh’į́.

1-me glasses 3-there exist.NI with only 3-with1-see.N(Prpg:??)

T’iis Ts’ózídi shicheii bidááh níyá.

Crownpoint.at 1-grandfather 3-meet 1-walk.P

Tówónaanígóó ch’aazhdóya’ laanaa.

overseas-to 3-1-travel.O hope

Tł’éédą́ą́, yá’át’ééhgo iiłhaaz. Night.last good.GO 1-sleep.P

Night.last good.GO 1-sleep.P

yiyííyą́ą́’

3DO-3-eat.it.P

yínídlą́ą́’

3DO-2-drink.it.P

Ąąh háá’á wolyéii k’ad doo ’asht’é’égóó bik’ee ntsinisdzá.

debt 3-extend.NP 3-be.called.NI now extremely 3-on.account.of 1-???? YÁ

Łį́į́’ ’áhidinníłnáago sizį́.

horse Recip-3-opposite-GO 3-du-stand.SPN

Łį́į́’ bá ni’níłjoolgo ’índa Kintahgóó diikah.

horse 3-for 2.feed.NCM.P only.then town-GO 3pl.go.F