Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

An example search has returned 50 entries

’Ach’íí’ ła’ deeshį́į́ł.

rolled.intestine some 1-eat.F
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I will eat rolled intestines now and then.

’Adą́ą́dą́ą́’ ch’iyáán ’áshłaago dajííyą́ą́’.

yesterday food 1-make.P-GO pl-4-eat.P

’Asdzą́ą́ ’éí ’ashkii ha’át’íí yeiní’ą́?

woman TOP boy what 3-to-3-3-move.SRO.P
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What did the woman give the boy?

’Ashą́ą́ nít’ę́ę́’ t’áadoo hooyání shaa ’ílwod.

1-eat.Prog past suddenly 1-for 3-drive.P

’Atsį́’ísh ’éí doodaii’ łóó’ísh nínízin?

meat-Q or fish-Q 3-2-want.NI

’Ayóo deesk’aazgo beeldléí ditánígíí biih násh’nah.

very cold-GO blanket 3-thick.NI-ÍGÍÍ 3-into 1-crawl.R

’át’ahígo

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shortly, soon, in a little while

-naashii

Bee’eldííldahsinil kintahdi sh ’oolwoł ńt’éé’ tsístł’ahazt’i’ léi’ góne’ sh ’o’oolwod.

Albuquerque town-at 1-with 3-run.Prg past deadend a areal-in 1-with 3-drive.P

Bikáá’ dah ’asdáhí bikáa’gi doodaai’ ni’góó daats’í nishdaah?

chair 3-top-at or floor-on perhaps 1-sit.NI

Bįįh bináyaa niłchiin ’éí hataałii chodayooł’į́.

deer 3-eye beneath matter that medicineman 3-3-use.I
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The matter from under the eye fold of a deer is used by medicine men.

Ch’óóshdą́ą́dą́ą́’ Na’nízhoozhídi kééhasht’į́ ńt’éé’.

formerly Gallup-at 1-live.I past
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I used to live in Gallup. I lived formerly in Gallup.                                                                                                                                                                        

Chidí bitiin ’ałts’ą́ą́hjí ’ańt’i’.

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There’s a fence on both sides of the highway.

Chidí daats’í bee hólǫ́ ’éí doodaii’ niísh chidí nee hólǫ́?

car maybe 3-with 4-exist.N TOP or 2-Q car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Da’ Ron saad nináánéíłkaah ya’?

Q Ron word 3-3-investigate.I Q
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Ron’s investigating words again?

Dichinísh doodaii’ dibáá’ísh dzinízin?

hunger-Q or thirst-Q 4-want.NI

Díí ’ashkii Bilagáana bizaad shá bíbiyiił’aah.

this boy English 3-language 3-2-teach.I
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Teach this boy English for me.

Díkwíísh ninááhai?

how.many-Q 2-winter.NI

doo chohoo’į́į́góó

Doo hanii kintahgóó díníyáa da nisin.

NEG contrary town-toward 2-start.go.P NEG 1-think.CI

Doo łá’í ndi naash’áa da.

NEG one but 3-1-hold.SRO.CI NEG
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I haven’t a single one, I have not even one.

Gah bikéé’ yishwoł.

rabbit 3-following 1-chase.Prog
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I was chasing a rabbit.

Gohwééh haa néeląą’ nee hólǫ́?

coffee how 3-much.N 2-with 4-exist.NI

Ha’át’éegoshą’ ’ayóo náníldzid?

why-Q very 2-fear.I

haa + Neuter V

how / what V. The ’h’-expressions formed with ’haa’ plus a neuter verb are used to pose questions about “physical characteristics, quantity, and degree”.

hááji

Hádą́ą́’sh Mary ’ólta’dę́ę́’ nádzá?

when-past-Q Mary school-from 3-return.P

Háíshą’ tsinaa’eeł ’áyiilaa?

who-Q boat 3-3-make.P

Hoozdo hoolyéedi deesdoi sha’shin. ’Áyaańda (’áyąą) diné bi’éétsoh t’áá gééd ndaakai.

Phoenix areal-called-at hot possibly no.wonder person 3-coat without pl-3-go.pl.P
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I guess it’s warm in Phoenix. No wonder people go around without coats.

jíí’aal

3DO-4-chew.it.P

k’adę́ę

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nearly, almost

Na’nízhoozhídę́ę́’ shíká bił ’oolwoł.

Gallup 1-for 3-with 3-drive.I

Niísh ’ałdó’ t’áá ’ákwíinínízin?

2-Q also just 2-think.so.NI

Sáanii ’éétsoh bi’oh ’ádaníłtso.

women coat 3-less.than indef-Pl-3.size.N

Sha’áłchíní béeso ’ashladiin baa nínil ńt’éé’ t’ááła’ajį́ ’ałtso yibadooskai.

1-children money 50 3-for 2-put.PlO.P past at-once all 3-3-exhaust.P

Shicheii béeso bideená naalnish.

1-grandfather money 3-exchange.for 3-work.I
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My grandfather works for money.

Shicheii hastą́diin nááhai yilááhdę́ę́’ ’aníłdįįd.

1-grandfather sixty years 3-beyond-from 3-3-survive.P

Shikéédę́ę́’ naa hodoolzhish.

1-behind-from 2-passing become.F

Shimá sitsilí bibéésh bee hane’í bits’ą́ą́’ náádii’ą́.

1-mother 1-little.brother 3-cellphone 3-away.from 3-3-return.P
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My mother took my little brother’s cellphone away.

Shínaaí shikétł’á ’iiyilgo łį́į́’ bikáá’ hasis’na’.

1-older.brother 1-foot-bottom 3-3-boost.P-GO horse 3-top up-1-crawl.P
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My older brother boosted me and I got up on the horse’s back.

Shį́į́dą́ą́’ łé’é yázhí shee hazlį́į́’.

summer-past pony 1-with 3-become.P
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I got a pony last summer, I acquired a pony last summer.

T’ahdiísh nahałtin?

still-Q area-rain.CI
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Is it still raining?

T’áá hooshch’į’ déshnish.

suddenly 1-start.work.P

Tooh ńłínígíí ha’naa shił ’adeeshdloozh ńt’éé’ łį́į́’ shił deezgo’

water river areal-across 1-with 3-move.P past horse 1-with 3-fall.P
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I started to ride across the river when the horse fell with me.

Tł’éédą́ą́’ ’iiłhaazh.

night-past 1-sleep.P

Tł’éédą́ą́’ mą’ii léi’ shidááh gónaa ch’élwod.

last-night coyote there 1-before areal-around 3-move-rapidly.P
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Last night a coyote crossed my path.

woo’aal

3DO-2dpl-chew.it.P

yiishjį́į́’

1-become black, get sunburned.P

yiishjį́į́ł

1-become black, get sunburned.Prog

yíní’aal

3DO-2-chew.it.P