Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

An example search has returned 50 entries

’Adą́ą́dą́ą́’ísh tł’óo’di nanilnishgo nee ’ałní’ní’ą́?

yesterday-Q outside-at 2-work.CI-GO 2-with noon

’Ahwééh yishdlį́į́h ’áádóó naanishgóó yishááh.

coffee 3-1-drink.U and.then work-toward 3-1-go.U

’Awééh kweʼé ninishteeh, adaʼoogeeh.

baby here 3-carry.AnO.I 3-fall.O

’Ádi’óóyą́ą́’ le’.

self-2-eat.O don’t

’Íídeeshwosh daats’í doodaii’ saad naalkaah bindeeshnish.

1-sleep.F maybe or word research 3-1-work.F

'Ólta’góó deínóhkááh.

school-toward pl-2dpl-go.pl.PROG

-ááłk’iis

-ba’

-ch’ą́ą́h

Baa tįįh náádiikah.

3-for achieve 1dpl-walk.pl.I

Béeso bá hooghandi béeso ch’ééh ’adííníshkeed.

money 3-for house-at money in.vain 1-ask.I

Ch’ééh jidighaahgo, ajółhosh laanaa jinizin łeh.

in.vain 4-walk.I-GO, 4-sleep.O hope 4-want.CI usually

Ch’ééh jiyáán náshdį́į́h ’áádóó tó náshdlį́į́h.

watermelon again-1-eat.R then water again-1-drink.R

Ch’éénísh’į́įgo náá’deeshtł’óół nissin.

out summer.GO 1-again.weave.F 1-desire
listenloadingplaying

I want to weave again when summer returns.

Ch’óóshdą́ą́dą́ą́’ shichidí naaki. K’ad ’éí t’ááłá’i.́

formerly 1-car two now it one
listenloadingplaying

I used to have two cars. Now I have only one.

Chidí naat’a’í nihił dah diit’a’.

airplane 1dpl-with up 3-fly.P

Chizh ła’ yah ’aníjááh.

firewood some in 2-bring.I

dashoołbéézh

pl-3DO-2dpl-boil.it.P

dayííłhį́į́’

pl-3DO-3dpl-melt.it.(snow).P

dego

listenloadingplaying

up, upward, up in the air

diilyį́į́h

3DO-1dpl-melt.it.I

dizhdiłjeeh

3DO-4-start.fire.I

Díí tł’éé’ t’áá ká dóola dá’ák’eólyeed.

this night NEG bull into.field-3-run.O

dooshą’ dó’ léi’ --- lá

Dzi’izí bikee’ náásxis nít’éé’ bił daalkaałí baa’íí’á.

bicycle 3-tire 3-3-turn.Prog past nail 3-into-3-extend.NP

ha’át’íí biniyé/ biniinaa

hadiiltééł

3DO-1dpl-carry.him/her.up.out.of.something.F

Hahgo Jáan hooghan ’íílééh?

When John hogan 3-3-make.F
listenloadingplaying

When will John build a hogan?

Hazhó’ó nidahísóotą́.

still pl-2dpl-sit.pl.P

háadi

Háísh b nanilnish?

who-Q 3-with 2-work.I

Hooghangóó nikéédeeshdááł nisin ndi ółta’di ’éí náshiilkááh.

home-toward 1-go.F 1-want.NI but school-at there 1-spend.night.N CHECK VERB GLOSSES

K’ad cháshk’eh góyaa tó de ’anool’ąął.

now wash down water up 3-rise.Prog
listenloadingplaying

The water’s rising now down in the wash.

KinŁánídi ’ííníshta’ ńt’éé’ ’áádóó t’áá ’ániidígo ’áadi náánísdzáá ńtéé’ ’ééhosisya’ lá.

Flagstaff-in 1-study.P past and.then just recently there-at 1-return.P past 1-get.hazy.P disc
listenloadingplaying

I was young I went to school in Flagstaff but I returned there recently to find that I’m so hazy about things that I barely recognize the place.

Naaltsoos bikáá’ na’aníshí bikáa’gi si’ą́.

book desk 3-on-at up 3-lie.SRO.SPN

Naʼazhǫǫshgóó dooʼáazhgo nihikééʼ ʼiih deeshwoł.

casino-GÓÓ 2du-go.F-GO 2pl-behind 3-into 1-run.F

Nichidí lá háadi nííníłbą́ą́z?

2-car-Q where-at 3-2-park.P

Nichidí háadi-sh nííníłbą́ą́z?

2-car where-at-Q 3-2-park.P

Nimá sání bich’į́’ ch’iyáán ła’ dijááh.

2-grandmother 2-to food some start-3-2.take.PlO2.F

Sha’áłchíní Toohgóó bił ’eesbąs.

1-children Shiprock-to 3-with 1-drive.Prog

Shich’ahashkéé léi’ doo bíká ’iishyeed da.

1-3-upset.I since NEG 3-for 1-help.I NEG
listenloadingplaying

I didn’t help him/her since s/he was upset with me.

Shichídí sh hooghangóó dídzį́į́s.

1-car 1-for hogan-GÓÓ start-3-2-tow.I

Shilééchąą’í yázhí shikéé’ yildlosh ńt’éé’ hashtł’ish yiih yildloozh.

1-dog little 1-behind 3-walk.Prog past mud 3-into 3-walk.P

T’áá ’aaníígóó shił hodoonih bíniiká na’ídíshkid.

truth 1-with 3-tell.O 3-against 3-1-question. I
listenloadingplaying

I’m asking questions (against him) to get him to tell the truth.

T’áá ch’ééh ’ásht’į́įgo bįįh biyaaghah ’eelwod.

just in.vain 1-act.NI-GO deer 3-around.corner 3- run.away.P
listenloadingplaying

I was still trying (to get a bead) when the deer went around a corner and disappeared.

T’áá kintahdi ’ííyą́ą́’ nidi náá’áshdą́.

just town-at 1-eat.P but 3-1eat.R
listenloadingplaying

I ate in town, but I am eating again.

Tł’éédą́á’ dibé ch’íníjéé’ yiists’ą́ą́’ ’áádóó t’óó ńléí tsé deez’áhí bizánághah góne’ ’ahosoolts’ą́ą́’.

last.night sheep out-3-run-Pl.P 3-sound.P and then merely there rock point 3-around areal-in out-are
listenloadingplaying

Last night the sheep got out of the corral and the sound they made disappeared around the point of the ridge.

Tʼáadoo tʼóó yílnishí.

NEG just 2-work.Prog-í

yí’aal

3DO-1-chew.it.P

“Sh naa’aash ’ałgháádidiit’ash”, ní ma’ii jiní.

1-with cousin 1du-race.F 3-say.P coyote 4-say.P
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“My cousin, letʼs have a race”, Coyote said to the skunk, they said.