Introduction to Navajo Adverbs

This lexicon is built on a list from Young & Morgan (1987:12-17). This list is a heterogeneous collection of expressions that certainly belong to more than one syntactic category. For instance, it includes time expressions like ’adą́ą́dą́ą́’ (‘yesterday’) and ’ałní’ní’ą́ (‘at noon’), but it also includes the negative frame doo…da and several expressions that are constructed with it, and it includes various particles that tend to appear before the verb (e.g., hah ’quickly’; dah ‘up’). These appear in various places within a clause. Oddly, ńt’éé (a particle denoting past time which is placed after the verb) is in the list, but dooleeł (a particle denoting future time which appears in the same position) is not in the list.

We constructed this tool using Young & Morgan’s list without making adjustments to it. There may be a future version that includes different selections.

An example search has returned 50 entries

’Ashkii bi’éé’ hazhó’ó ’ayíyiischid dóó ’ólta’ góne’ yah ’ííyá.

boy 3-shirt nicely 3-3-tuck.in.P and 3-go.P
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The boy tucked his shirt in nicely and went into the classroom.

’Ííshją́ą́ díí ’atoo’ béésh bii’ kǫ’í bikáá’ dah séką́.

don’t forget this stew stove 3-top up 1-put.P.OC
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Don’t forget that I put the stew on the stove.

-ch’ą́ą́h

-ę́ę+-dą́ą́’ (yę́ędą́ą́’)

-jí

-na’

-tsi

Béésh náábał dóó haa nízahdi nighan?

windmill and how 3-long.N-at 2-home
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How far is your place from the windmill?

Ch’aa dé ńt’éé shichídí bikee’ dilkǫǫh.

travel 1-go past 1-vehicle 3-tires worn.

Chidí bitiin ’ałts’ą́ą́hjí ’ańt’i’.

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There’s a fence on both sides of the highway.

Chidí naat’a’íísh hooghankáá’góó ch’ínísaal ’éí doodaii’ dziłghą́ą́’góó daats’í?

airplane house-over-along over-3-fly.P TOP or mountain-attached-along perhaps

Chidí t’ą́ą́’ nináníłbą́ą́z.

car just 3-1-reparked.R
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I backed in the car again.

Chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodaii’ ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

car-Q 3-with 4-exist.NI or you perhaps car 2-with 4-exist.NI

Chidíísh bee hólǫ́ doodaii’ ni daats’í chidí nee hólǫ́?

car-Q 3-with 4-exist.NI or 2 maybe car 2-with 4-exist.NI

de, deg

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up

Doo choshijooł’į́į́’ le’ ’át’éégóó sh hóyéé’.

NEG 3-1-make.use.O proof.against-NEG 1-with lazy.NI

Doo deighánígóó łeeyi’ ’azhnígeed.

NEG far ground-inside 3-4-dig.P

Dooshą’ gah t’áá gééd náshdááh lá.

ensure rabbit just without 1-return.I DISC
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I’ll see to it that I don’t return without a rabbit.

Ha’át’íí lá hastiin dóó ’at’ééd ’áyiilaa?

what Q man and girl 3-3-make.P
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What did the man and the girl make?

Haa néelą́ą́’ nidá’ák’eh?

how 3-much.N 2-cornfield

Haahláyéé ch’íjíghááh.

don’t.dare out-4-come.I
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Don’t you dare come out!

hadajizgeed

pl-3DO-4dpl-dig.it.out.P

hadééłbįįd

3DO-1-fill.something.up.with.it.P

Hái da shą’ tsinaa’eeł ’ájiilaa lá?

who DA Q boat 3-4-make.P DISC

Hoozdohdi ’éí doo ’ashohodoobéézhgóó deesdoi.

Phoenix-at TOP extremely 3-hot.SPN

Hónáhoot’éhí ’índa ch’aa deeshááł nissin.

next.year until travel will.go.F 1-desire.

I’m thinking about traveling until next year.

Joe dóó Louise hataał.

Joe and Louise 3-sing.CI

k’adę́ę lágo

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just about the time when

Nédáá dóó bikáá’adání bik’i ndinís’eez.

1-sit and table 3-on 1-place-1-foot.P
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I sat down and put my feet on the table.

Nichidí lá háadi nííníłbą́ą́z?

2-car-Q where-at 3-2-park.P

nidasoołkáá’

pl-3DO-2dpl-investigate.it.P

Nidlóóhísh doodaii’ dooísh nidlóoh da?

2-cold.X-Q or NEG-Q 2-cold.X-Q NEG

Nidlóóhísh doodaii’ dooísh nidlóoh da?

2-cold.I-Q or NEG-Q 2-cold.I-Q NEG

nijilé

3DO-4-carry.a.ropelike.thing.around.I

Nimá yázhí bighangóó díílwoł dóó ’áájí ’awéé’ baa ’áhólyą́dooleeł.

2-auntie 3-house-toward 2-run.F and there-at baby 3-to 2-care.CI FUT

nishóóh

3DO-2-brush/comb.it.I

Shá bíighah na’ashkǫ́ǫ́’.

sun proportionate 1-swim.CI

Shá bíighah na’ashkǫ́ǫ́’go yiishjį́į́’ lá.

sun proportionate 1-swim.CI-GO 1-sun.burn.I DISC

Shimá sitsilí bibéésh bee hane’í bits’ą́ą́’ náádii’ą́.

1-mother 1-little.brother 3-cellphone 3-away.from 3-3-return.P
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My mother took my little brother’s cellphone away.

Shį́į́dą́ą́’ na’niiłkaadgo t’áá ’áháníjį’ ’adeeshch’iłgo bik’ee deelyiz.

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Last summer when we were out herding sheep a bolt of lightning struck nearby and gave us a startle.

T’iis Ts’ózídi shicheii bidááh níyá.

Crownpoint.at 1-grandfather 3-meet 1-walk.P
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I met my grandfather at Crownpoint.

Tsékooh biniit’aají łįį’hoł sizį́į́go binísá.

canyon 3-barring.to.a.point horse 4-with 3-stand.SPN.GO 3-1-caught-up.P
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I caught up with him sitting on his horse at the canyon.

Tsxį́įłgo łees’áán ’ánílééh; nimásání nihaa níyá!

quickly tortilla 2-make.I 2-mat.grandma 1.pl-to 3-came.P

Tł’éédą́ą́’ ńléí dził bine’jí ’adildííl yiits’a’ ni’.

night-past there mountain 3-behind-way thunder 3-sound.P recall

woohdlą́ą́’

3DO-2dpl-drink.it.P

Yiską́ągo nighandi naadeeshááł.

tomorrow 2-home-at 2-to-1-go.F

yiyiigish

3DO-3-make.one.cut.in.it.I

yoodlą́ą́’

3DO-3-drink.it.P

Ąąh háá’á wolyéii k’ad doo ’asht’é’égóó bik’ee ntsinisdzá.

debt 3-extend.NP 3-be.called.NI now extremely 3-on.account.of 1-???? YÁ
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I’m really fed up with bills now.